San Francisco's Flipper—who ended up influencing everything from grunge to metal— became antiheroes of American hardcore by creating a sound completely at odds with that scene's standards. Instead of short, fast bursts of anger, they crafted long, slow, sludgy, almost psychedelic tunes that had more in common with Hawkwind than hardcore. The band released their first single in 1980, followed by a debut LP in 1982. They split in 1987, following the death of singer Will Shatter. Uber-producer and fan Rick Rubin reunited the surviving members for 1993's American Grafishy.